Along with the increase in the standard of living, energy consumption, and the consumption of other nonrenewable material resources have grown to unsustainable levels. Closing the loop on the material flows associated with product or service delivery to consumers is an important step towards a more sustainable industrial society. One element of an overall product life-cycle strategy that can aid in achieving this goal is product remanufacturing. However, the full societal benefits of remanufacturing can not be achieved unless design for remanufacturing becomes an integral part of the product development process, both at the product strategy level and the detailed product and manufacturing engineering level.

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