Decision variables are identified (including manufacturing and remanufacturing capacities and return rates and use rates for end-of-life products) and optimal policies are determined. Moreover, the structure of these optimal policies is analysed. The conclusion drawn is that, in many realistic scenarios, mixed policies (that is, with return rates and use rates strictly between 0 and 1) can be optimal. This conclusion is contrary to results published in earlier studies, which are based on more restrictive assumptions. These academic papers are available to purchase through Sciencedirect.com, usually at US$30 each. To do this, it is necessary to register via the weblink given.

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